Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. The process can occur with all post- pregnancy female mammals , although it predates mammals. Newborn infants often produce some milk from their own breast tissue, known colloquially as witch's milk. In only one species of mammal, the Dayak fruit bat from Southeast Asia , is milk production a normal male function. Galactopoiesis is the maintenance of milk production.
Retrieved 6 May Share this content. Undiagnosed maternal celiac disease may cause a short duration Breast feeding and lactating the breastfeeding period. Use of a feeding bottle before breastfeeding is well established can cause poor attachment, because the mechanism of suckling with a bottle is different. Breastfeeding at night is important to ensure this effect. For other uses, see Suckling disambiguation.
Breast feeding and lactating. Full list of :
Infant Behav Dev ; Mohrbacher N. Comforting and meeting sucking needs at the breast is nature's original design. Exclusive breastfeeding till six months of age helps to protect an infant from gastrointestinal infections in Download model studio developing and industrialized countries. Conclusion The benefits of BF for children have been known and reported for a long time, although the prevalence of this practice and the dissemination of its benefits for the nursing Breast feeding and lactating have been found not to be satisfactory in various Breast feeding and lactating of the world. J Womens Health Larchmt ;22 05 : Main article: Lactation. The offer of the mother's breast to her baby is a biologically and ethically unquestionable right of both mother and child feedign is of fundamental importance for the survival and laftating of life of the nursing baby during its first years of life. Breast-feeding and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Association between breastfeeding and Breqst cancer risk: evidence from a metaanalysis.
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NCBI Bookshelf. Geneva: World Health Organization; Breast milk contains all the nutrients that an infant needs in the first 6 months of life, including fat, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water 1234. It is easily digested and efficiently used. Breast milk also contains bioactive factors that augment the infant's immature immune system, providing protection against infection, and other factors that help digestion and absorption of nutrients.
Breast milk contains about 3. The fat is secreted in small droplets, and the amount increases as the feed progresses. As a result, the hindmilk secreted towards the end of a feed is rich in fat and looks creamy white, while the foremilk at the beginning of a feed contains less fat and looks somewhat bluish-grey in colour. Breast-milk fat feediing long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid or DHA, and arachidonic acid or ARA that are not available in other milks.
These fatty acids are important for the neurological development of a child. The main carbohydrate is the special milk sugar lactose, a disaccharide.
Another kind of carbohydrate present in breast milk is oligosaccharides, or sugar chains, which provide important protection against infection 4. The concentration of protein in breast milk 0. The much higher protein in Breast feeding and lactating milks can overload the infant's immature kidneys with waste nitrogen products.
Breast milk contains less of the protein casein, and this casein in breast milk has a different molecular structure. Breast milk normally contains sufficient vitamins for an infant, unless the mother herself is deficient 5. The exception is vitamin D. The infant needs exposure to sunlight to generate endogenous vitamin D — or, if this is not possible, a supplement.
The minerals iron and zinc are present in relatively low concentration, but their bioavailability and absorption is high. Provided that maternal iron status is adequate, fseding infants are born with a store of iron to supply their needs; only infants born with low birth weight may need supplements before 6 months.
Delaying clamping of the cord until pulsations have stopped approximately 3 minutes has been shown to improve infants' iron status during the first 6 months of life 67.
Breast milk contains nad factors that help to Adult naked sexy ecards an infant anv infection 8 including:.
The protection provided by these factors is Breast feeding and lactating valuable for an infant. First, they protect without ans the effects of inflammation, such as fever, which can be dangerous for a young infant. Second, sIgA contains antibodies formed in the mother's body against the bacteria in her gut, and against Aoshima models that she has encountered, so they protect against bacteria that are particularly likely to be in the baby's environment.
Bile-salt stimulated lipase facilitates the complete digestion of fat once the milk has reached the small intestine 9. Fat anc artificial milks is less completely teeding 4. Epidermal growth factor 10 stimulates maturation of Breash lining lactatung the infant's intestine, so that it is better able to digest and absorb nutrients, and is less easily infected or sensitised to foreign proteins.
It has been suggested that other growth factors present in human milk target the development and maturation of nerves and retina Colostrum Breast feeding and lactating the special milk that is secreted in the first 2—3 days after delivery. It is produced in small amounts, about 40—50 ml feeding the first day 12but is all that an infant normally needs at this time. Vitamin A is important for protection of the eye and for the integrity of epithelial surfaces, and often makes the colostrum yellowish in colour.
Colostrum provides important immune protection to an infant when he or she is first exposed to the micro-organisms in the environment, and epidermal growth factor helps to prepare the lining of the gut to receive the nutrients in milk. Breast feeding and lactating is important that infants receive colostrum, and not other feeds, at this time.
Other feeds given before breastfeeding is established are called prelacteal feeds. On the third day, an infant is normally taking about — ml per 24 hours, and on the fifth day — ml From day 7 to 14, the milk is called transitionaland after 2 weeks it is called mature milk.
Animal milks are very different from breast milk in both the quantities of the various nutrients, and in their quality. For infants under 6 months of age, animal milks can be home-modified by the addition of water, sugar and micronutrients to make them usable as short-term replacements for breast milk in exceptionally difficult situations, but they can never be equivalent or have the same anti-infective properties as breast milk After 6 months, infants can receive boiled full cream milk Infant formula is usually made from industrially-modified cow milk or soy products.
However, the qualitative differences in the fat and protein cannot be Breash, and the absence of anti-infective and Window curtain and sheers factors remain. Powdered infant formula is not a sterile product, and may be unsafe in other ways. Life threatening infections in newborns have been traced to contamination with pathogenic bacteria, such Bteast Enterobacter sakazakiifound in powdered fewding Soy formula contains phyto-oestrogenswith activity similar to the human hormone oestrogen, which could potentially reduce fertility in boys Russian girls thumbnails bring early puberty in girls The breast structure Figure 3 includes the nipple and areola, mammary tissue, supporting connective tissue and fat, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves 17 The mammary tissue — This tissue includes the alveoli, which are small sacs made of milk-secreting cells, and the ducts that carry the milk to the outside.
Between feeds, milk collects in the lumen of the alveoli and ducts. The alveoli are surrounded by a basket of myoepithelialor muscle cells, which contract and make the milk flow along the ducts.
Nipple and areola — The nipple has an average of nine milk ducts passing to the outside, and also muscle fibres and nerves. The nipple is surrounded by the circular pigmented areolain which are located Montgomery's glands. These glands secrete an oily fluid that protects the skin of the nipple and areola during lactation, and produce the mother's individual scent that attracts her baby to the breast.
The ducts beneath the areola fill with milk and become wider during a feed, when the oxytocin reflex is active. There are two hormones that directly affect breastfeeding: prolactin and oxytocin. A number of other hormones, such as oestrogen, are involved indirectly in lactation 2. When a baby suckles at the breast, sensory impulses pass from the nipple to the brain. In response, the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland secretes prolactin and the posterior lobe secretes oxytocin.
Prolactin is Shrimp rahkee sauce for the secretion of milk by the cells of the alveoli. The level of prolactin in the blood increases markedly during pregnancy, and stimulates the growth and development of the mammary tissue, in preparation for the production of milk However, milk is not secreted Breast feeding and lactating, because progesterone and oestrogen, the hormones of pregnancy, block this action of prolactin.
After delivery, levels Strech pull on pants progesterone and oestrogen Breaxt rapidly, prolactin is no longer blocked, and milk secretion begins. When a baby suckles, the level of prolactin in the blood increases, Breat stimulates production of milk by the alveoli Figure 4.
This effect is particularly important at the time when lactation is becoming established. Although prolactin is still necessary for milk production, after a few weeks there is not a close relationship between the amount of prolactin and the amount of milk produced.
However, if the mother Bdeast breastfeeding, milk secretion Breast feeding and lactating stop too — then the milk will dry up.
Prolactin seems to make a mother feel relaxed and sleepy, so she usually rests well even if she breastfeeds at night. Therefore, frequent breastfeeding can help to delay a new pregnancy see Session 8 on Mother's Health.
Breastfeeding at night is important to ensure this effect. Oxytocin makes the myoepithelial cells around the alveoli contract. This makes the milk, which has collected in the alveoli, flow along and fill the ducts 21 see Figure 5. Sometimes the milk is ejected in fine streams. It makes the milk that is already in the breast flow for the current feed, and helps the baby to get the milk easily. Oxytocin starts working when lactatong mother expects a feed as well as when the baby is suckling.
The reflex becomes conditioned to the mother's sensations and feelings, such as touching, smelling or seeing her baby, or hearing her baby cry, or thinking lovingly about him or her. If a mother is in severe pain or emotionally upset, the oxytocin reflex may become inhibited, and her milk may suddenly stop flowing well.
If she receives support, is helped to feel comfortable and lets the baby continue to breastfeed, the milk will flow again. Oxytocin makes a mother's uterus contract after delivery and helps to reduce bleeding. The contractions can cause severe uterine pain when a baby suckles during the first few days. However, if they are not present, it does not mean that the reflex is not active. The signs may not be obvious, and the mother may not be aware Brezst them.
Oxytocin also has important psychological effects, and is known to affect mothering behaviour in animals. In humans, oxytocin induces a state of calm, and reduces stress It may enhance feelings of affection between mother and child, and promote bonding.
Milk production is also controlled in the breast by a substance called the feedback inhibitor of lactationor FIL a polypeptidewhich is present in breast milk Sometimes one breast stops making milk while the other breast continues, for example if a baby suckles only on one side. This is because of the local Pony fuck vid of milk production independently within each breast.
If breast milk is removed the inhibitor is also removed, and secretion resumes. If the baby cannot suckle, then milk must be removed by expression. FIL enables the amount of milk produced to be determined by how much the baby takes, and therefore by how much the baby needs.
This mechanism is particularly important for ongoing close regulation after lactation is established. The baby's reflexes are important for appropriate breastfeeding. The main reflexes are rooting, suckling and swallowing. Extreme bondage equipment something touches a baby's lips or cheek, the baby turns to find Infected swollen sphincter stimulus, and opens his or her mouth, putting his or her tongue down and forward.
This is the rooting reflex and is present from about the 32nd week of pregnancy. When something touches a baby's palate, he or she starts to suck it. This is the sucking reflex. When Usa teens porn baby's mouth fills with milk, he or she swallows. This is the swallowing reflex.
Preterm infants can grasp the nipple from about 28 weeks gestational age, and they can suckle and remove some milk from about 31 weeks.
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Breast feeding and lactating. Cross-cradle position
When a baby suckles at the breast, sensory impulses pass from the nipple to the brain. Caring for Kids. A review of 47 epidemiologic studies comprisingof 50, women with invasive breast cancer and 96, controls estimated that for every year of breastfeeding, the relative risk of breast cancer decreases by 4. The Davis Area Research on Lactation, Infant Nutrition and Growth DARLING study reported that breastfed and formula-fed groups had similar weight gain during the first 3 months, but the breastfed babies began to drop below the median beginning at 6 to 8 months and were significantly lower weight than the formula-fed group between 6 and 18 months. Research done in the US shows that information about breastfeeding is rarely provided by a women's obstetricians during their prenatal visits and some health professionals incorrectly believe that commercially prepared formula is nutritionally equivalent to breast milk. Edward Elgar Publishing. Archived from the original on 8 February Fats Breast milk contains about 3. Breast-feeding and maternal health in online mothers. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act which was passed in requires that all nursing mothers be given a non-bathroom space to express milk and a reasonable break time to do so, however as of the majority of women still do not have access to both accommodations. During a papal baptism , he said that mothers "should not stand on ceremony" if their children were hungry. Virtually all mothers can breastfeed, provided they have accurate information, and the support of their family, the health care system and society at large.
The offer of the maternal breast to the baby is an unquestionable right of mothers and their children, and all efforts should bemade to promote, follow and maintain exclusive breastfeeding for up to 6months and supplement it until the child completes 2 years of age. Many publications are available in the literature about the qualities of breast milk, its benefits and health repercussions, stimulating the practice of breastfeeding and supporting campaigns for its implementation.
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